About the Park
Biogeographically, the location of GHNPCA and adjacent protected areas is at the junction of world’s two major faunal realms, i.e. the Indomalayan to the south and Palaearctic to the north. The temperate forest flora-fauna of GHNPCA represents the western-most extenuation of the Sino-Japanese Region. The high altitude ecosystem of Northwest Himalaya has floral affinities with the adjacent Western and Central Asiatic region.
Because of its range of species assemblages, and availability of a compact area for conserving the habitat and biological diversity, GHNPCA is the foremost priority for conservation in the biogeographic zone 2B, i.e. North-West Himalaya (Rodgers and Panwar 2002). The flora of GHNPCA shows affinities with the Mediterranean and Tibetan as well as cis-Himalayan regions. For example, Valeriana jatamansi, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Taxus baccata, Leycesteria formosa are typical taxa that extend up to Afghanistan and west China. Other affinities that are met with here are in the form of Hippophae, of the Palaearctic region; Cedrus deodara, Viola biflora, and Poa alpina, of the Mediterranean region; and Euphorbia, of Peninsular India. In addition, the Himalaya have evolved a high proportion of their own endemic flora and fauna taxa, for example several species of balsams Impetience, Androsace primuloides, Hedysarum cachemirianum, Draba lasiophylla, etc. and Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus which are well represented in GHNP.
The boundaries of GHNP are contiguous with the Pin Valley NP in Trans-Himalaya, and Rupi-Bhabha WLS in Sutlej catchment. Another PA nearby GHNPCA is Kanawar WLS. Together, all these PAs have varied wildlife habitats, and bring with them the full range of Western Himalayan biodiversity, from tropical to alpine and Tibetan.
Click to view larger map of Himachal Pradesh Bio-provinces